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冰川冻土 ›› 2001, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 80-84.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

乌鲁木齐河源区大气降水的化学特征

侯书贵   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰芯与寒区环境开放研究实验室, 甘肃兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-06-15 修回日期:2000-08-24 出版日期:2001-02-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-10-02);中国科学院资源环境领域知识创新工程重大方向项目(KZCX2-301);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210506;CACX210046);国家自然科学基金项目(49901004;49871022)

Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation at the Headwaters of the Ürümqi River in the Tianshan Mountains

HOU Shu-gui   

  1. Laboratory of Ice Core and Cold Regions Environment, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-06-15 Revised:2000-08-24 Online:2001-02-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 根据乌鲁木齐河源区一个完整年周期的大气降水样品,初步探讨了该研究区域的降水化学特征.结果表明,在所有被测离子中,阳离子成分以Ca2+为主,阴离子成分以SO42-为主.Ca2+、Mg2+、Na+、K+、SO42-、NO3-和CI-的浓度范围分别为0~12.63μg·g-1、0~2.06μg·g-1、0.035~5.56μg·g-1、0~5.57μg·g-1、0.19~40.46μg·g-1、0~11.58μg·g-1和0~24.43μg·g-1.通过相关分析和经验正交函数分析,确定降水化学成分主要来源于区域性粉尘物质、局地来源物质、人类活动产生的酸性成分以及海洋或周围盐湖来源物质等.虽然区域性粉尘物质对降水化学特征的影响居于主导地位,但降水中的Ca2+受局地来源物质的影响较大,NO3-为主要的污染物,并在相当大程度上控制降水的酸碱性.海洋或周围盐湖来源物质处于非常次要的位置.

关键词: 乌鲁木齐河源, 降水, 化学特征, EOF分析

Abstract: During the period June, 1995 to June, 1996, all precipitation events were sampled at the headwaters of the Ürümqi River in the Tianshan Mountains, China. The samples were analyzed at Laboratory of Ice Core and Cold Regions Environment, CAREERI, CAS, for major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42-), pH and conductivity. It is found that Ca2+ dominates the cations, while SO42- dominates the anions among the measured major ions. The concentration amplitudes are 0~12.63 μg·g-1 for Ca2+, 0~2.06 μg·g-1 for Mg2+, 0.03~5.56 μg·g-1 for Na+, 0~5.57 μg·g-1 for K+, 0.19~40.46 μg·g-1 for SO42-, 0~11.58 μg·g-1 for NO3- and 0~24.43 μg·g-1 for Cl-, respectively. The results of EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) analysis and correlation analysis indicate that the chemicals in precipitation originate from four sources, namely, the regional Asia dust, local coarse dust, anthropogenetic component, and sea (and/or saline lakes) salt. EOF1 explains 60.5% of the total variance in the multi variables, and all the ions, as well as pH and conductivity, are positively correlated with in EOF1 associations, which might reflect the influence of the regional Asia dust on precipitation chemistry. Ca2+ and Mg2+ dominate EOF2 associations (explaining 50 3% and 37 5% of their corresponding total variances), which are also negatively correlated within all the other ions, reflecting the influence of the local coarse dust. NO3- and pH dominate EOF3 associations, which are negatively correlated, thus it is suggested that EOF3 might represent the acidic component deduced from the local anthropogenetic activities. K+, Na+ and Cl-dominate EOF4 associations, which might reflect the material originated from sea (and/or saline lakes) salt. Although the chemical characteristics of precipitation is basically controlled by contribution of regional Asia dust, over half of Ca2+ comes from the local dust. Moreover, NO3-, rather than SO42-, it represents the local contamination and determines the acidity of precipitation, because EOF3 can only explain 2.1% of the total SO42- variances. Material originated from sea salt or nearby saline lakes only plays a minor role in the precipitation chemistry.

Key words: headwaters of the Ürümqi River, precipitation, chemical characteristics, EOF analysis

中图分类号: 

  • P426.61+2