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冰川冻土 ›› 2001, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 92-98.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

土体冻结过程中的热质迁移研究进展

何平, 程国栋, 朱元林   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冻土工程国家重点实验室, 甘肃兰州730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-11-21 修回日期:2000-12-01 出版日期:2001-02-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210013);中国科学院资源环境领域知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX2-〕06)资助

The Progress of Study on Heat and Mass Transfer in Freezing Soils

HE Ping, CHENG Guo-dong, ZHU Yuan-lin   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-11-21 Revised:2000-12-01 Online:2001-02-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 土体的冻胀、融沉问题归根结底是热质迁移问题,文章概述了近年来在国际上有关这方面研究的新成果.总体上讲,冻结缘的厚度、分凝冰形成温度以及冰透镜体形成条件等作为热质迁移试验研究的重点受到关注,质的迁移研究不仅仅限制在水分的迁移,而且对于矿物质、溶质、气体等的迁移以及对水分迁移的影响都有不同程度的研究.对于冻胀预报模型,已从经验型过渡到依据基本物理、力学、热动力学理论而建立的理论模型.今后的研究发展方向是加强室内参数测试水平以及对理论模型的普适性验证.

关键词: 冻结过程, 热质迁移, 冻胀模型

Abstract: The study on heat and mass transfer in freezing soil has made progress in recent years. Some research results are reviewed in this paper. Based on the tests, the thickness of frozen fringe, temperature of ice segregation, formation conditions of ice lens and frost heave models have been studied. It is found that ice segregation temperature decreases with the frost depth quickly in the initial stage of test, and then increases, finally becomes stable as a result of temperature gradient reduce with increasing the length of frozen section.The generation and growth of ice lens are dependent on freezing rate.Some researchers thought water is partly frozen in frozen fringe owing to different water migration forces and different frozen temperatures in different sites. The relationship between water migration forces and frozen temperature meets the demand of phase change in the fringe.In the tests on the formation of water-methane gas, it is revealed that only a part of free pore water is converted into hydrate during cooling of sediment, the other is converted into ice during freezing. A frost heave model is developed for practical engineering application in cold regions and for scientific purpose to understand the frost phenomena and mass migration mechanisms. A thermodynamic model, taking into account thermal and mass transfer, stress, and deformation of soil skeleton and ice, is put forward. In the framework of continuum mechanics and mixture theory, the influence of void ration on frost heaving is studied after proposing a criterion of formation of layered ice; and the results obtained coincide with experimental data. Considering the complex natural environment, the convection of air, snow cover, rain falling, vegetation, and seepage of surface water were introduced into some models. It is revealed that natural convection of the ballast pore air have a large impact on heat transfer rate during the period when unstable pore-air density gradient exists.This may lead to enhanced frost penetration and frost heave in foundation soils beneath an embankment, and have an adverse impact on the operation of high-speed rail lines during winter.In practical application, some models with simple form and few parameters have been widely used to analyze heat and water field of road embankment, but others is only in a numerical simulation stage due to the difficulty of determining parameters.Therfeore, it is necessary to improve the models in order to reflect the natural and physic properties, to test in fields and to search the methods of measuring the parameters in the models.

Key words: process of soil freezing, heat and mass transfer, frost heave model

中图分类号: 

  • TU445