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冰川冻土 ›› 2001, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 231-237.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国冰川分布的地理特征

王宗太, 刘潮海   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-09-29 修回日期:2001-01-15 出版日期:2001-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院特别经费支持项目"冰冻圈动态变化基础研究(三期)"资助

Geographical Characteristics of the Distribution of Glaciers in China

WANG Zong-tai, LIU Chao-hai   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-09-29 Revised:2001-01-15 Online:2001-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 中国冰川分布,在西北形成了冰水绿州景观,在塔里木盆地和雅鲁藏布江周围形成5个巨大的冰川集结中心.用"冰川覆盖度”评价,干旱山区的高山有较大的冰川发育能力."冰川中值”标志的冰川分布高程,向青藏高原内部逐渐抬升.冰川的进退幅度,向低能量冰川区减小.冰川形态类型因地而异,分化成"高山型”和"高原型”两大类型组合.

关键词: 冰川分布, 冰水绿州景观, 冰川覆盖度, 冰川中值, 有效冰川作用正差

Abstract: The geographical characteristics of the distribution of glaciers in China are analyzed with a new viewpoint. Based on the viewpoint, Tarim Basin is surrounded by enormous sums of glaciers, which form a special glaciofluvial landscape in the world. Glacier Inventory of China shows that the distribution of glaciers exhibits the behaviour of disequilibrium. There are five maximum glacierized centers in the two large river basins in the west of China. The glacier extent can be assessed by glacier coverage, an intensity parameter. Glacier coverage in the arid mountains of Northwest China is larger than that in the wet mountains of Southeast China. The altitudinal characteristics of the distribution of glaciers can be assessed by the median contour of glacier, which rises towards the inside of the Tibetan Plateau. The range of glacier variation can be assessed by glacial energy, which decreases from the glaciated areas with high energy to the glaciated areas with low energy. According to their behaviour, the glaciers in China can be classified into mountain type and plateau type.

Key words: glaciofluvial landscape, glacier distribution, glacier coverage, median contour of glacier, effective positive difference of glaciation

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6