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冰川冻土 ›› 2001, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 251-250.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山北坡流域冰川物质平衡波动及其对河西水资源的影响

沈永平1, 刘时银1, 甄丽丽2, 王根绪1, 刘光琇1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所甘肃, 兰州, 730000;
    2. 兰州医学院甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2000-11-23 修回日期:2001-03-25 出版日期:2001-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-10-06);国家自然科学基金项目(49871021);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210042);中国科学院"西部之光”人才培养计划项目资助

Fluctuations of Glacier Mass Balance in Watersheds of Qilian Mountain and Their Impact on Water Resources of Hexi Region

SHEN Yong-ping1, LIU Shi-yin1, ZHEN Li-li2, WANG Gen-xu1, LIU Guang-xiu1   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Lanzhou Medical College, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2000-11-23 Revised:2001-03-25 Online:2001-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 祁连山北坡各流域发育有现代冰川2166条,总面积1308km2,冰储量60km3,冰川融水补给河流约8×108m3·a-1,占河西地表总径流量的11%.近40a来,东段石羊河流域冰川物质平衡(Bn)呈较大负平衡,Bn在-80~-120mm间;西段的讨勒河、疏勒河和党河流域冰川具正物质平衡,Bn在+50~+90mm;黑河流域的冰川处于过渡区,其冰川物质平衡多年平均在-40~+40mm间.冰川物质平衡的变化直接影响着河流径流的变化,洪水坝河、党河和昌马河的冰川融水补给率达30~40%以上,东大河、大渚马河、马营河和讨勒河的补给率在12%~14%之间,而西营河和梨园河仅有%左右.冰川物质平衡逐年变化显示,20世纪50~0年代冰川以负物质平衡为主,80年代开始向正的平衡开始转化,90年代以正平衡为主,主要是冬季气温上升引起的降雪量增加的结果.在全球气温变暖情景下,东段冰川物质平衡将呈增加的趋势,西段冰川物质平衡将呈下降的趋势,将使西段以冰川融水补给的河流径流增加,而东段石羊河流域径流下降明显.

关键词: 冰川物质平衡, 冰川融水补给, 径流变化, 祁连山

Abstract: In inland watersheds on north slope of Qilian mountain, there are 2166 existing glaciers with a total area of 1308 km2 and ice volume 60 km3. Melt water of these glaciers from year to year feeds to river, and annual recharge reach up to about 8×108 m3·a-1, constitute about 11% of total runoff in surface water resources of Hexi region. Using method of statistical mechanics and maximum entropy principle, we obtain that distributions pf precipitation, mean depth and coefficient of runoff in a watershed can be described by a negative exponential function. In a high mountains basin with partial glacier cover, the maximum distributive area of precipitation, depth and coefficient of runoff is glacierized area. In this case, a calculation method of average mass balance for glaciers in a watershed has been suggested. The calculation method is employed to recovery of mass balance for glaciers in the Qilian Mountains. In the past 40 years, glacier changes in eastern section and west section of Qilian Mountains present a spatial variation: Glacier mass balance in Shiyanghe drainage basin of east section has a signification negative balance, Bn in -80~-120 mm;In Shulehe, Taolehe and Danghe watersheds of west section, glacier mass balance have a characteristic of positive mass balance, Bn at +50~+90 mm; In Heihe watershed, glacier mass balance get off to transition zone, average mass balance for many years at -40~+40 mm. Variance in glacier mass balance influence directly to variance in river runoff, Bn and runoff has a negative correlation relation. Difference of glacial size in different watershed will effect to vary of glacial melt water supply rate. Glacial melt water supply rate in Hongshuibahe, Danghe and Changmahe watersheds are in more than 30%~40%; Dongdahe, Dazhemahe, Mayinghe and Taolehe watersheds in 12%~14%; and Xiyinghe and Liyuanhe watersheds have just about 7%. Year to year change of glacier mass balance shows that glaciers in 1950s-1970s presented a predominating negative mass balance, and from 1980s glacier mass balance begin inverting to positive statue and in 1990s mass balance predominating with positive, is a result of air temperature rising in winter induced increasing of snow fall. Under scenario of global air temperature warming, future glacier mass balance in eastern section of Qilian mountain will trend to increasing, and but glacier mass balance in western section would trended descending, and result in runoff increasing of glacial melt water alimentative rivers in western section, whereas runoff declining apparent of Shiyanghe watershed in eastern section.

Key words: glacier mass balance, glacial melt water supply, runoff variation, Qilian mountain

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6