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冰川冻土 ›› 2002, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 254-259.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

青海高原湿地特征及其保护

陈桂琛, 黄志伟, 卢学峰, 彭敏   

  1. 中国科学院, 西北高原生物研究所, 青海, 西宁, 810001
  • 收稿日期:2001-10-20 修回日期:2002-01-22 出版日期:2002-06-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院生物技术研究特别支持项目(Stz97-1-08);中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX1-10-06)资助

Characteristics of Wetland and Its Conservation in the Qinghai Plateau

CHEN Gui-chen, HUANG Zhi-wei, LU Xue-feng, PENG Min   

  1. Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining Qinghai 810001, China
  • Received:2001-10-20 Revised:2002-01-22 Online:2002-06-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 青海省地处青藏高原东北部,是我国长江、黄河和澜沧江的发源地,素有"江河源"之称.青海高原湿地类型包括自然湿地和人工湿地两大类型,湿地总面积约55662.7km2,占全省土地总面积的7.7%.高原湿地分布特点主要表现为3种形式:1)以湖泊或浅塘为中心的环带状分布;2)以河流为中心的条带状分布;3)河源区的斑块状镶嵌分布.高原湿地生物种类较为丰富,有湿地种子植物约428种;湿地动物约151种,其中鸟类约73种、鱼类约55种、哺乳类约14种以及两栖类9种.湿地植被有水生植被、沼泽植被和沼泽草甸3大基本类型.近几十年来,青海高原湿地出现湖泊水位下降、湖泊面积萎缩、河流出现断流以及沼泽湿地退化等方面的明显变化.鉴于高原湿地的生态功能和作用,应加强青海高原湿地的保护.

关键词: 青海高原, 湿地, 湿地生物, 湿地变化

Abstract: Qinghai Province, 72.12×104 km2 in area, located in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau, is the source regions of the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River. It ranges about 31°39’~39°19’ N, 89°35’~103°04’ E. Wetlands in the Qinghai Plateau include natural and artificial ones. The total area of the wetlands is about 55662.7 km2, 7.7% of the total area of Qinghai Province. The distribution patterns of the wetlands in the Qinghai Plateau are as follows: circle belt distribution surrounding lakes or ponds; strip belt distribution along rivers or streams; patch mosaic distribution in riverhead regions. Species of the wetland in the plateau are rich. According to statistics, there are 428 species of spermatophytes and 151 species of animals, including 73 species of birds, 55 species of fishes, 14 species of mammals and 9 species of amphibians in the wetlands. The wetland vegetation types are as follows: aquatic vegetation, swamp vegetation and swamp meadow. In recent tens years, wetlands in the plateau have a visible change, such as lake water level lowering, lake shrinking, dry of rivers or streams, degradation of swamp wetland, and so on. It is important to strengthen the conservation of the wetlands in the plateau according to its function.

Key words: Qinghai Plateau, wetland, organism of the wetland, change of wetland

中图分类号: 

  • P941.78