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冰川冻土 ›› 2002, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 322-330.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

极地和山地冰川雪冰中重金属的研究进展

李真, 姚檀栋   

  1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰芯与寒区环境重点实验室, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2001-09-12 修回日期:2002-01-15 出版日期:2002-06-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    国家基础研究发展规划项目(G1998040811);中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX2-301);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210008)资助

Progress in the Studies of Heavy Metals in Snow and Ice in Polar Ice Sheets and Alpine Glaciers

LI Zhen, YAO Tan-dong   

  1. Key Laboratory of Ice Core and Cold Regions Environment, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2001-09-12 Revised:2002-01-15 Online:2002-06-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 地球系统中含量甚微的重金属元素是评价人类活动对大气环境影响的良好指标,研究极地和山地冰川地区过去和现代雪冰中重金属的历史记录,可以重建这些元素在过去大气环境中的循环过程,对认识地球大气环境中重金属污染的规模和历史、揭示这些污染物质的来源及中长距离的输送过程具有重要的作用.概述了格陵兰、南极、阿尔卑斯山和青藏高原等地区雪冰中重金属的研究进展,并对该领域未来的研究方向进行了展望.

关键词: 雪冰, 重金属, 历史记录, 人类活动

Abstract: The heavy metals are good indicators of the human activity impact on atmospheric environment. The investigation of the historic records of heavy metals in the polar and alpine snow and ice is essential in reconstructing the past atmospheric cycles of these metals, and is important in determining the extent and timing of the anthropogenic heavy metal emissions. This paper reviews the progress in the studies of heavy metals in snow and ice. The available data show that human activity had led to the increases in lead and copper concentrations at Greenland two millennia ago, and these increases had become much heavier from the industrial revolution. As to zinc, cadmium and mercury, they also increase in Greenland in recent centuries. However, these trends were followed by a decrease from the 1970s. For the Antarctica, the backgrounds of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg in ancient ice were highly dependent upon climatic conditions, the highest values occurred during the coldest periods of the ice ages, especially during the Last Glacial Maximum. Human activity led to increase in Pb and Cu concentrations during the 20th century, and a decrease in Pb has happened since the 1980s. No unambiguous evidence for human activity impact on other heavy metals can be obtained in Antarctica. On the other hand, no much work were carried on deciphering the history of atmospheric heavy metals pollution in the regions with high-altitude cold alpine glaciers in the mid-low latitudes, and the available data show that human activity impact on these regions was heavier than in Greenland and Antarctica. Although such investigations give access to an outline of human perturbation of the distribution of certain heavy metals, much effort is urgently needed to devote in future.

Key words: snow and ice, heavy metals, history record, human activity

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6