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冰川冻土 ›› 2002, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 361-367.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

承载力概念的演变及西北水资源承载力的应用框架

程国栋   

  1. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冻土工程国家重点实验室, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2002-06-03 修回日期:2002-07-05 出版日期:2002-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-10-03;KZCX1-09-04);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所知识创新工程项目(CACX210018)资助

Evolution of the Concept of Carrying Capacity and the Analysis Framework of Water Resources Carrying Capacity in Northwest of China

CHENG Guo-dong   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, CAREERI, CAS, Gansu Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2002-06-03 Revised:2002-07-05 Online:2002-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 研究了承载力概念的历史、特征和缺陷及其应用背景和条件,对承载力对环境问题的理解提供了新的思路.将承载力概念的变化划分为3阶段:1)萌芽阶段,环境容纳能力概念的提出;2)发展阶段,容纳能力概念中强调资源和环境与种群增长之间的状态均衡;3)完善阶段,承载力的概念强调人文价值选择,追求的目标,强调生态和经济系统之间的相互影响,是对生态经济系统良性发展的一种支持能力,承载力的估计变为一种范围估计.承载力概念应用在与人文活动及人文目标等有关的领域的时候,是一个复杂的规范概念,受生态系统的动态演替规律,人类价值取向,目标体制背景及管理措施等的影响.最后,在分析总结我国已有水资源承载力研究成果的基础上,在生态经济系统的背景下,提出了新的水资源承载力概念,分析了水资源承载力的特征和研究方法,并提出了西北水资源承载力的研究框架。

关键词: 承载力, 演变, 水资源承载力, 分析框架

Abstract: From the view of history, in this paper, the concept of carrying capacity is investigated to provide an improved understanding about its contribution to solve environmental and resources problems.The evolution of the concept of carrying capacity can be divided into three stages. The first stage began with an examination of the bedrock of carrying capacity, which was the Malthus’ population theory. In the theory, the mathematical formulation (logistic growth equation), the rigid assumptions of logistic equation and the uncertainty of terms were found not to follow an equivocal calculation and prediction. But the Malthus’ theory provided the bedrock of carrying capacity. The second stage was a development stage, mainly furnished by ecology research. This stage definition induced the idea of interaction between population of animal species and state of the environment. It shifted the attention from equilibrium quality to the environment range. The third stage consummates the concept of bearing capacity. In this stage, the notions of bearing capacity are placed in the background of ecological economics system for human beings. The matter is complicated by some factors, such as substantial individual difference in types and quantities of resources consumption, rapid cultural evolution of the types and quantities of resources supplying each unit consumption, institutions background, and patterns of socially controlled resources distribution. The notions put a premium on value judgments, institutional settings and interaction between ecological and economics system.In the second part of this paper, the notion of water resources bearing capacity was analyses in detail and redefined. An analysis framework of water carrying capacity in Northwest China is produced. In the new analysis framework, more attentions were paid on the ecological process, the interaction between ecological and economic systems, and management practices.

Key words: carrying capacity, evolution, water resources carrying capacity, analysis framework

中图分类号: 

  • F062.2