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冰川冻土 ›› 2002, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 444-451.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

洞庭湖湿地生态环境问题及形成机制分析

毛德华1,3, 夏军2,3   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学资源与环境科学学院, 湖南长沙, 410081;
    2. 武汉大学水利水电学院, 湖北武汉, 430072;
    3. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京, 100101
  • 收稿日期:2002-05-24 修回日期:2002-06-25 出版日期:2002-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KXCX-SW-317);湖南省自然科学基金项目(01JJY3014)资助

Ecological and Environmental Problems and Their Causing Mechanisms in Dongting Lake Wetland

MAO De-hua1,3, XIA Jun2,3   

  1. 1. College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Normal University, Changsha Hunan 410081, China;
    2. College of Hydraulic and Electric Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan Hubei 430072, China;
    3. Institute of Geography Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2002-05-24 Revised:2002-06-25 Online:2002-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 依据1999─2001年的监测和调查资料,分析了洞庭湖湿地的生态环境问题及其形成机制.生态环境问题主要表现有:水质污染加剧,富营养化趋势明显;血吸虫病疫区扩展,危害反弹;洪涝灾害频繁严重,气候灾害多样;湿地资源衰退,生态平衡遭破坏等.从自然因素与人类活动、宏观与微观、时间与空间、总体与具体等方面综合分析了生态环境问题的形成机制。

关键词: 生态环境问题, 形成机制, 洞庭湖湿地

Abstract: In this paper the main ecological and environmental problems and their causing mechanisms in the Dongting Lake wetland are analyzed according to new investigations and observations. There are four main ecological and environmental problems. Firstly, water pollution becomes more serious and eutrophication is going to be considerable; Secondly, the infectious range of schistosoma japonicum disease has expanded and its harmful affection has recovered; Thirdly, flood and waterlogged disaster is frequent and serious, drought disaster occurs occasionally and meteorological disaster is diversified; Finally, wetland resources have degraded and ecological balance has been destroyed.There are consecutive features in the water pollution and eutrophication, such as nitrogen and phosphorus are the main pollution factors and living pollution is predominant; water pollution and eutrophication are slight as a whole and less changes in a year, but their regional difference is large; the water pollution is gradually aggravated and the eutrophication becomes obvious.Flood and waterlogged disaster in the Dongting Lake wetland is due to the synthetic influence of artificial and natural factors, such as regional link mechanism, abnormal atmospheric circulation, responding mechanism to El Nino and influence of land use change.The causing mechanism of harmful schistosoma japonicum disease contains micro-mechanism and macro-mechanism. The former is that the oncomelania-breeding region is expanding in accordance with the beach expansion and has expanded greatly to the polders due to the frequent flood disaster, increasing drainage culvert and offtake. The later is that the density of oncomelania closely relates to altitude and coverage of the beach vegetation, and is controlled by the beach environmental factors, such as groundwater table and soil water content.Water pollution and entrophication result from the synthetic effect of sewage discharged from point sources and area sources, hydrological and climatic conditions. The paper mills and fertilizer industries are the main pollution sources. The most serious pollution region is the western Dongting Lake. Generally speaking, the eutrophication in the Dongting Lake is not so obvious. The reason is the special water environment of the lake.The causing mechanisms of biodiversity reducing and ecological balance destroyed is the ecological succession from sand deposit to beach vegetation; over-fishing, over cultivation of beach and water area, water pollution and the return course of fishes broken by hydraulic structures.

Key words: ecological and environmental problems, causing mechanism, Dongting Lake wetland

中图分类号: 

  • X171.1