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冰川冻土 ›› 2003, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 49-54.

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

青藏高原土壤冻结始日和终日的年际变化

高荣1, 韦志刚1, 董文杰2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000;
    2. 中国科学院, 大气物理研究所, 北京, 100029
  • 收稿日期:2002-04-01 修回日期:2002-07-08 出版日期:2003-02-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展规划项目(G1998040900);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(ZKCX2-SW-210);国家自然科学基金重点项目(40231005)资助

Interannual Variation of the Beginning Date and the Ending Date of Soil Freezing in the Tibetan Plateau

GAO Rong1, WEI Zhi-gang1, DONG Wen-jie 2   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2002-04-01 Revised:2002-07-08 Online:2003-02-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 利用青藏高原1981-1999年青海和西藏58个气象站观测的土壤冻结上、下限记录,分析了冻结始日、冻结终日的空间分布和年际变化特征.结果表明:最早、最晚和平均冻结始日的分布基本一致,都是由北向南逐渐推迟的;最早、最晚和平均冻结终日的空间分布也比较一致,呈现南北早、中部晚的特点.在20世纪80年代高原土壤冻结多偏早,解冻多偏晚,冻结日数偏多;而90年代正好相反,冻结多偏晚,解冻多偏早,冻结日数偏少;冻结始日有明显的3~4a周期变化,冻结终日有明显的准7a周期变化;1981年、1982年为冻结早、解冻晚年,1983年、1990年为冻结晚、解冻晚年,1993年、1999年为冻结晚、解冻早年.

关键词: 冻结始日, 冻结终日, 年际变化

Abstract: By using the upper limit and lower limit of frozen soil in 58 meteorological stations from 1981 to 1999 in Qinghai Province and Tibet Region, the special distributing and inter-annual variation of the beginning date and the ending date of the soil freezing is analyzed;When soil begins to freeze in fall, the early, the late and the mean beginning dates occur from north to south gradationally. Soil freezes early in the northeastern Qinghai Province and in the source areas of the Yellow River. Soil freezes late in the northern slopes of the Himalayas, the southeastern and the northern Tibet Region. When soil concludes to freeze in the spring, the early, the late and the mean ending date is rather consistent, early in the south and north of the plateau and late in the Middle Plateau. Soil thaws early in the northern slopes of the Himalayas, the southeastern Tibet Region, the Qaidam Basin and the northeastern Qinghai Province. Soil thaws late in the northern Tibetan Region and the source areas of the Yellow River;The difference between the last and the earliest beginning dates of soil freezing are 20 d to 90 d in different stations. The maximum difference, more than 50 d, appears in the source areas of the Yellow River, the southeastern and the northern Tibetan Region. The difference between the last and the earliest ending dates of soil freezing are 30 d to 90 d in different stations. The maximum difference concentrates in Qaidam Basin;The series of the beginning date of soil freezing varies in a period of 3~4 a, while that of ending date of soil freezing varies in a period of about 7 a. Thus the frozen days varies in a period of 2~6 a. The cumulative depth and the maximum depth of frozen soil varies in a period of 3~8 a, but the variation is slight, which cannot pass the significance test of 5%;The beginning date of soil freezing has a trend to occur latter and the ending date of soil freezing has a trend to occur earlier, showing permafrost is degenerating in the plateau. In the 1980s, the soil frozen early and thawed late, resulting in a longer frozen duration. But in the 1990s, the soil frozen late and thawed early, resulting in a shorter frozen duration;In 1981 and 1982 soil frozen early and thawed late; 1983 and 1990 soil frozen late and thawed late; 1993 and 1999 soil frozen late and thawed early.

Key words: beginning date of soil freezing, ending date of soil freezing, inter-annual variation

中图分类号: 

  • P642.14