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冰川冻土 ›› 2003, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 414-422.

• 气候与水资源变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

长江-黄河源寒区径流时空变化特征对比

谢昌卫, 丁永建, 刘时银, 王根绪   

  1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2003-01-20 修回日期:2003-05-20 出版日期:2003-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 作者简介:谢昌卫(1973- ),男,甘肃甘谷人,1996年毕业于兰州大学地质系,现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所在读博士生,主要从事寒旱区水文与水资源研究.E-mail:xiecw@ns.lzb.ac.cn.
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新重大项目(KZCX1-10-06);国家自然科学基金重大项目(90202013)资助

Comparison Analysis of Runoff Change in the Source Regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers

XIE Chang-wei, DING Yong-jian, LIU Shi-yin, WANG Gen-xu   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2003-01-20 Revised:2003-05-20 Online:2003-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 长江源区比黄河源区寒冷而干燥, 年径流量仅为黄河源区的60%, 径流年内分配较黄河源区均匀性差, 丰水年与枯水年比例基本相当, 而黄河源区枯水年占较大优势. 近40 a来长江源区径流量总体上呈明显的递减趋势, 黄河源区径流量则呈现略微增长趋势. 长江源区径流量以8~9 a的周期变化较为显著, 黄河源区径流量则以7~8 a周期比较显著. 对寒区径流变化的主要影响因子分析表明, 长江源区温度因子对径流年际变化影响大于黄河源区, 而降水因子影响相对较小, 长江源区寒区水文环境对径流影响较大是造成长江、黄河源区径流差异形成的主要原因.

关键词: 寒区水文环境, 径流特征分析, 长江-黄河源区

Abstract: Climate and water environment is different between the source regions of the Yangtze River and that of Yellow River. Climate in the source regions of the Yangtze River is colder, with mean annual temperature below 0℃ in the most of the regions. But mean annual temperature of the source regions of the Yellow River is higher than 0℃. Precipitation is less in the source regions of the Yangtze River, ranging from 250 to 480 mm, while precipitation ranges from 300 to 760 mm in the source regions of the Yellow River. So the surface runoffs in the two hydrological systems have some difference in distribution within a year and multi-annual variation. By analyzing runoff variations within a year and multi-annual variation in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, it is found that the surface runoff in the source regions of the Yellow River has uniformity distribution feature in comparison with that in the source of the Yangtze River. It is identified that there were 21 low water years and 19 rich water years in the period from 1961 to 2000 in the source regions of the Yangtze River. But in the source regions of the Yellow River there were 27 low water years and 17 rich water years from 1956 to 1999. In the recent 40 years, the runoff evolution in the source regions of the Yangtze River experiences a process of wet-dry-wet-dry. However in the source regions of the Yellow River it is a process of dry-wet-dry. Mean annual runoff in the source regions of the Yangtze River has a period of 8~9 a obviously. But in the source regions of the Yellow River the period is 7~8 a. The factors, such as precipitation and temperature, which influence runoff mainly, are analyzed by multiple regressions. It is found that temperature is more active in the source regions of the Yangtze River and precipitation is more prominent in the source regions of the Yellow River. Water environment in the cold regions is more important in the source regions of the Yangtze River rather than in the source regions of the Yellow River. It is the leading cause why there is different in runoff between the source regions of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River.

Key words: characteristics of runoff, cold regions environment, source regions of the Yangtze River and Yellow River

中图分类号: 

  • P339