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冰川冻土 ›› 2003, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 428-432.

• 气候与水资源变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

不同时间尺度下的稳定同位素变化

章新平1,2, 姚檀栋2, 刘晶淼3, 田立德2   

  1. 1. 湖南师范大学, 资源与环境科学学院, 湖南, 长沙, 410081;
    2. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所冰芯与寒区环境重点实验室, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
    3. 中国气象科学研究院, 北京, 100081
  • 收稿日期:2002-10-16 修回日期:2003-01-08 出版日期:2003-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 作者简介:章新平(1956- ),男,湖南长沙人,教授,1993年在中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所获博士学位,现从事全球变化的研究.E-mail:zxp@mail.hunnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(40271025);国家863研究项目(2002AA135360)资助

Isotopic Variations under Different Time Scales

ZHANG Xin-ping1,2, YAO Tan-dong2, LIU Jing-miao3, TIAN Li-de2   

  1. 1. Institute of Resources and Environment, Hunan Normal University, Changsha Hunan 410081, China;
    2. Key Laboratoryof Ice Core and Cold Regions Enviromment, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    3. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • Received:2002-10-16 Revised:2003-01-08 Online:2003-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 根据北半球IAEA/WMO监测网12个具有长序列站点的资料, 分析了在不同时间尺度下降水中δ18O的时空变化特征.被选出的12个取样站都存在显著的降水量效应, δ18O/降水量变化率的大小与降水量存在一定程度的反比关系.降水量效应不仅与产生降水的强对流现象相联系,而且与降水量的季节分布有关.在年尺度下, 12个站中的11个站具有一定程度的温度效应,相对而言,位于中低纬度取样站的平均δ18O/平均温度变化率大于中高纬度.与单站相比,合计的δ18O和温度之间的正相关关系要显著得多,说明δ18O的年际变化主要受大尺度气象条件的制约且反映大尺度空间的环境和气候变化.分析表明, 12个站合计的年加权平均δ18O和合计的年平均温度的逐年变化具有较好的一致性.

关键词: 降水, 稳定同位素, 温度效应, 降水量效应, 季节变化, 年际变化

Abstract: The temporal and spatial variations of stable isotopic composition in precipitation under different time scales are analyzed using the data of 12 IAEA/WMO sampling stations that have long-term series in the Northern Hemisphere. Under seasonal scale, the elected 12 stations have notable amount effect, and the magnitude of δ18O/precipitation gradient is indirectly proportional to precipitation at a certain extent. The analyses show that the amount effect is not only related to strong convection of generating heavy rainfall but also to seasonal distribution of precipitation. For the latter, the seasonal distribution of mean precipitation is just contrary to that of mean temperature. Under annual scale, 11 among the 12 stations have temperature effect of certain degree. The only exception, Valentia, is located in Ireland and borders on the North Atlantic. The different weather systems and vapor origins complicate stable isotopic variations in precipitation. Comparatively, the mean δ18O/temperature gradient at mid-low latitudes is greater than that at mid-high latitudes. The composite positive correlation between δ18O and temperature is more marked, compared with that of single station, showing the interannual variation of δ18O is mainly controlled by large-scale weather condition and mirrors the environmental and climatic change on large-scale space, but no local influence. Additionally, the interannual variation of the composite annual weighted mean δ18O is in agreement with that of the mean annual temperature: the mean δ18O and mean temperature is -5.57‰ and 20.59℃, respectively, in the 1960s of the 20th Century. The mean δ18O and temperature changed at a low level successively after the 1970s and got the minimums, -9.06‰ and 13.91℃, in the early 1980s, decreased by 3.59‰ and 7.22℃, respectively, compared with the maximum values in 1970, in this period. Since then, the mean δ18O and mean temperature went up successively, and got the new highs, -5.23‰ and 20.38℃ respectively, increased by 3.82‰ and 6.47℃ compared with the minimums in the 1980s. Comparatively, the fluctuant extent of δ18O curve is markedly greater than that of temperature curve, showing that, from another aspect, the δ18O under annual scale has globality.

Key words: precipitation, stable isotope, temperature effect, amount effect, seasonal variation, annual variation

中图分类号: 

  • P426.61+2