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冰川冻土 ›› 2003, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 498-503.

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

世界和中国的冰川分布及其水资源意义

王宗太1, 苏宏超2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000;
    2. 新疆水文水资源局, 新疆, 乌鲁木齐, 830000
  • 收稿日期:2002-12-20 修回日期:2003-04-23 出版日期:2003-10-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 作者简介:王宗太(1934-), 男, 河南嵩县人, 研究员, 1957年毕业于北京大学地质地理系, 主要从事冰川与环境研究.E-mail:chwa@public.lz.gs.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-10-06);国家自然科学基金项目(90202013)资助

Glaciers in the World and China: Distribution and Their Significance as Water Resources

WANG Zong-tai1, SU Hong-chao2   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Xinjiang Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau, Ür黰qi Xinjiang 830000, China
  • Received:2002-12-20 Revised:2003-04-23 Online:2003-10-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 世界上巨大数量的冰川是优质清洁的淡水资源,但分布极其不均衡,导致在各地区可利用价值的差异.冰盖全部集中在南极和格陵兰,山岳冰川的84%集中于亚洲高地和北美寒区.中国是中低纬带冰川最多规模最大的国家,又是世界荒漠区和贫水国中冰川最多的国家.中国冰川分布以青新荒漠绿洲区最多,其中塔里木是世界上冰川最多的内流水系,并哺育出塔里木冰水绿洲.为平衡绿洲经济发展与生态环境安全的关系,提出"养源平流"方针.

关键词: 冰川水资源, 山岳冰川, 亚洲高地, 冰水绿洲, 荒漠区, 养源平流

Abstract: Glaciers are fine and clean fresh water resources. They are great in quantity, but are distributed inhomogenously in the world. All ice sheets concentrate in the Antarctica and Greenland, and the maximal part of mountain glaciers(84%)concentrates in Asian highlands and the frigid one in North America. Glaciers in China are accounting for 30% of glaciers in the middle-low latitudes. Among all countries in the middle-low latitudes, among all countries in the desert zones and among all countries being lack of water in the world, China is the biggest one that holds a great deal of glaciers in quantity and scale. In China most glaciers are distributed in the Qinghai-Xinjiang desert-oasis zone, including the Tarim River drainage, which is the inland drainage with the most amount of glaciers in the world, nourishing the Tarim glaciofluvial oasis. A policy of maintaining water resources and distributing expenditure is put forward in order to balance the development of oasis economy and the safety of ecological environment.

Key words: glacier water resources, mountain glacier, glaciofluvial oasis, desert zone, High Asia, maintaining water resources and distributing expenditure

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6