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冰川冻土 ›› 2003, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 566-573.

• 大气-植被-土壤相互作用研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑河流域山前绿洲水量转化模拟研究

陈仁升, 康尔泗, 杨建平, 张济世   

  1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2003-05-06 修回日期:2003-07-29 出版日期:2003-10-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 作者简介:陈仁升(1974-), 男, 山东沂水人, 副研究员, 2002年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获博士学位, 主要从事寒旱区水文水资源模拟研究.E-mail:crs2008@ns.lzb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新重要方向性项目(KZCX3-SW-329);中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-10-03-01);国家自然科学基金重点项目(40235053)资助

Simulation of Water Resources Transformation in the Midstream Area of the Hei River Basin

CHEN Ren-sheng, KANG Er-si, YANG Jian-ping, ZHANG Ji-shi   

  1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2003-05-06 Revised:2003-07-29 Online:2003-10-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 利用数字高程数据、遥感解译成果、地下水和水文气象资料,建立了一个基于GIS网格的黑河中游山前绿洲地区分布式水文模型.模拟结果表明,黑河流域中游山前绿洲地带的降水几乎完全消耗于蒸散发,且大约70%的山区地表径流补给也消耗于蒸散发.蒸散发以中游森林为最多,草本植被蒸散发同植被覆盖度呈正比.天然植被覆盖度同降水量的多少呈正比,在当地气候条件下,降水是天然荒漠植被类型和分布的控制因子.

关键词: 黑河流域, 绿洲, 分布式水文模型, 水量转化, 模拟研究

Abstract: Based on 1:100 000 geographical map, TM image, monthly precipitation and air temperature from 35 hydro-meteorological stations, monthly evaporation from 21 stations and ground water level data from 97 wells during 1990 to 1992, this paper is intended to develop a distributed water balance model for the midstream area of the main branch of the Hei River. The research area covers 1.795×104km2, the basic unit size for computation is 930 m×930 m, and the time step is one month.. The results of simulation show that, in the total study area during 1990 to 1992, the average precipitation is 193.1mm, the average inputted runoff to the area is 127.8 mm, and the inputted deep ground water is 10.0mm. The total inputted water resource to the area is 330.9 mm, the evapotranspiration is 294.5mm, the output runoff is 36.3 mm, and the change of the water resource storage is 0.1 mm. Thus the total outputted water resource is 330.8 mm. The simulated total runoff amounts for 19.564×108m3 during 1990 to 1992, which is 0.04×108m3 more than the observed value. The most precipitation and 71.6% of the inputted runoff to the area are lost by evapotranspiration.. The simulated results show that, the precipitation is relatively more in the mountain area or the area near the mountains, therefore the natural vegetation grows rather well there. On the other hand the precipitation in the gobi and desert area is very less. The type and distribution of natural vegetation are highly related to precipitation. Therefore, precipitation is the control factor affecting the growth of the natural vegetation in the midstream area of the Hei River Basin.. The groundwater of the study area shows an increment during 1990 to 1992, but it increased During 1990 to 1991, while decreased in 1992. Generally, the groundwater level decreases in March, May and July, when the groundwater is pumped out for irrigation. The groundwater level increases in the region with high vegetation coverage, while decreases in the gobi and desert near the mountains and in the cities.. Evapotranspiration is much more in the forests, high coverage meadow and farmland, while it is very less in the gobi and desert area, and it is the most in the oasis forest. For herbal vegetation, the evapotranspiration is proportional to the vegetation coverage.

Key words: Hei River Basin, oasis, distributed hydrological model, water resources transformation, simulation

中图分类号: 

  • P339