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冰川冻土 ›› 2003, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (5): 580-584.

• 大气-植被-土壤相互作用研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑河流域山区植被生态水文功能的研究

金博文1,2, 康尔泗1, 宋克超1, 刘贤德2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000;
    2. 甘肃水源涵养林研究院, 甘肃, 张掖, 734000
  • 收稿日期:2003-05-15 修回日期:2003-08-06 出版日期:2003-10-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 作者简介:金博文(1972-), 男, 甘肃通渭人, 1996年毕业于甘肃农业大学, 现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所在读博士生, 主要从事森林水文与生态研究.E-mail:jinbw@hotmail.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院知识创新工程方向性项目(KZCX3-SW-329);中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(KZCX1-10-03-01)资助

Eco-hydrological Function of Mountain Vegetation in the Hei River Basin, Northwest China

JIN Bo-wen1,2, KANG Er-si1, SONG Ke-chao1, LIU Xian-de2   

  1. 1. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Iinstuitute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    2. Institute of Water Resource Conservation Forest in Qilian Mountains, Zhangye Gansu 734000, China
  • Received:2003-05-15 Revised:2003-08-06 Online:2003-10-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 依据土壤-植被-大气系统的结构特性,从林冠层、苔藓-枯枝落叶层、土壤层剖面结构分析了黑河流域山区水源涵养林在水文过程中的作用.观测试验表明,林冠截留大气降水的32.7%,使到达林地的水分相对减少而养分增加,而林冠遮荫使林内土壤蒸发仅为林外草地的34.2%.苔藓-枯枝落叶层疏松多孔,最大持水量可达12.5mm水层深,加上表层较高的体积含水量和较小的水分变差系数,使其在涵蓄一部分大气降水的同时具有良好的保水性能.林地土壤具有良好的渗透性和涵蓄大气降水的能力,从而减少了地表径流量.森林的蒸散发使林区空气湿度高于周边地区17%,形成山区独特的森林小气候,从而进一步影响着山区的水文过程.

关键词: 山区植被带, 生态水文功能, 黑河流域

Abstract: The altitude dependency of different mountain vegetation landscape zones are diagramed by field investigations in the mountain watershed of the Hei River Basin in the arid area of northwest China. Based on the structure and characteristics of soil vegetation atmosphere system, the eco-hydrological function of mountain forests, which are called the water restraint forests, is analyzed from the stratification of canopy layer, moss-residue layer and soil layer. The canopy layer intercepts 34.7% of rainfall averagely and brings nutrient to the soil about 61.04 kg·hm-2·a-1 by eluviation. The moss-residual layer can hold water up to 1.25×105kg·hm-2, that is equivalent to about 12.5 mm depth of water. The volume content of soil water in the surface soil layer of the moss-residual layer is relative high and has less variation. Therefore, the moss-residual layer detains some proportion of precipitation and possesses good water restraint ability. The infiltration rate of forest soil is averaged with 162 mm·min-1, which is about 8~170 times of that in grassland outside the forests. The evaporation of forest soil is only about 34.2% of that in grassland’s by the forests. It is observed that even a rainstorm of 94.5 mm does not generate surface runoff in the forest covered area. It is concluded that the mountain forests possess unique hydrological function of water and soil conservation in the mountain vegetation zone at the upper stream of the Hei River Basin.

Key words: mountainous vegetation zone, eco-hydrological function, Hei River Basin

中图分类号: 

  • S715