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冰川冻土 ›› 2006, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (4): 492-499.

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

额济纳蒙古族民间景观格局反映的区域环境状况

肖生春, 肖洪浪, 肖笃宁, 周茅先   

  1. 中国科学院, 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-07 修回日期:2006-02-28 出版日期:2006-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技攻关计划项目(2005BA517A03);中国科学院知识创新工程项目(KZCX3-SW-324KZCX1-09-05)资助

The Regional Environment Conditions Reflected by the Mongolian Folk Landscape Patterns in Ejina Banner,Inner Mongolia

XIAO Sheng-chun, XIAO Hong-lang, XIAO Du-ning, ZHOU Mao-xian   

  1. Cold and Arid Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2005-12-07 Revised:2006-02-28 Online:2006-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 以内蒙古额济纳旗为例,对当地土尔扈特蒙古族自18世纪初定牧于此开始,至20世纪之前形成的水域、植被和沙丘3大类蒙古族民间自然景观类型进行了研究.水域景观格局特征表明,相对于现代生态环境状况,在20世纪之前,额济纳冲积平原水环境较为优越,整个地区水域景观广布,地下水埋藏较浅.在植被景观格局方面,两河地区主要以胡杨-沙枣河岸林和河岸湿地为主;两湖地区主要以芦苇沼泽-芨芨草草甸和湖岸梭梭林为主;整个地区植被景观处于早期演替阶段.绿洲内部荒漠沙丘景观分布格局体现了干旱荒漠地区的景观基质特征.

关键词: 蒙古族民间景观类型, 景观格局, 生态环境, 额济纳地区

Abstract: The folk landscape types are the natural and humanistic landscapes,which are named by the idiom of the aborigines based on appreciating,cognizing and evaluating the local environment condition for a long time of practice and live.The folk landscape types are the base of traditional utilization and management of landscapes.It reflected the eco-environment conditions of the time when the folk landscapes were formed.There have a high consistency between the Mongolian folk landscape classification and the traditional one. In this paper,the Mongolian folk landscape types in Ejina Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were studied from the early eighteenth century when the Turhut Branch of Mongolian settled down.The changes of environmental pattern in the Ejina delta were outlined by analyzing the folk landscape types of the water bodies,vegetation and sand dunes.The study on the development of the folk landscape types will be help to further research the regional environmental changes.The folk landscapes pattern in Ejina Banner revealed that the landscape types distributed mainly around the Gurinai Lake and the middle reaches of the West-Ejina-River in the last 300 a.This landscapes pattern also showed that the rangeland had temporal continuity.The landscape pattern of water body showed that there had many pools in the middle reaches of the east-and west-Ejina River before the 20th century,besides the two terminal large lakes.Owing to the feeding of the abundant ground water,many large swamps formed in Gurinai and Wentugole Sumu.The ground water table was very high,and water was in high quality in the Ejina Banner.The rapid increase of landscape number of the well for livestock in 20~th century showed there was a worse trend of water environment in the whole region,because the river had changed into the seasonal one,and the river flow could not satisfy local people and their livestock.The landscape pattern of vegetation showed that the riparian forest(Populus euphratica and Elaeagnus Angustifolia forest) and the meadow was the dominative landscapes along the east-and West-Ejina River,and the shrub(Tamarix spp.) land was not the dominative one.And the reed(Phragmites communis)swamp,precarious(Achnatherum splends)meadow and the riparian shrub land of Haloxylon ammodendro was the dominative landscapes in Gurinai and Wentugole Sumu.The vegetation succession in the whole Ejina Banner was in its early stage.The sand dune landscape pattern in Ejina Oasis represents the basal landscape characteristics in the arid desert regions.

Key words: Mongolian folk landscape types, landscape pattern, eco-environment, Ejina Banner

中图分类号: 

  • Q149