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冰川冻土 ›› 2007, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 543-552.

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔里木河流域水文特性分析

艾尔肯·吐拉克1, 艾斯卡尔·买买提1, 吐尔逊·肉苏力2, 王晓风3, 沈永平4, 毛炜峄5, 王顺德1   

  1. 1. 阿克苏水文水资源勘测局, 新疆, 阿克苏, 843000;
    2. 阿克苏市水利局, 新疆, 阿克苏, 843000;
    3. 昌吉水文水资源勘测局, 新疆, 昌吉, 831100;
    4. 中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所, 甘肃, 兰州, 730000;
    5. 新疆气候中心, 新疆, 乌鲁木齐, 830002
  • 收稿日期:2007-03-07 修回日期:2007-05-12 出版日期:2007-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26
  • 基金资助:

    科技部社会公益研究专项“塔里木河流气候暖湿化及人类活动对地表水资源的影响”;国家自然科学基金项目(40371022);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-127)资助

Recent Changes in the River Hydrological Characteristics of the Tarim River Basin

Arkin Turak1, Askar Mamat1, Tursun Rusul2, WANG Xiao-feng3, SHEN Yong-ping4, MAO Wei-yi5, WANG Shun-de1   

  1. 1. Aksu Hydrology and Water Resource Bureau, Aksu Xinjiang 843000, China;
    2. Water Conservancy Bureau of Aksu Prefecture, Aksu Xinjiang 843000, China;
    3. Hydrology and Water Resource Bureau of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Changji Xinjiang831100, China;
    4. Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou Gansu 730000, China;
    5. Xinjiang Climate Center, Ürümqi Xinjinag 843000, China
  • Received:2007-03-07 Revised:2007-05-12 Online:2007-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 塔里木河是我国最大的内陆河,历史上是九大水系144条河流的总称.由于气候变化和人类活动影响生态环境急剧恶化,目前形成了"四源一干"的格局.根据水文气象监测资料,从50 a来流域内的降水、蒸发、径流、洪水、泥沙、水质等方面对塔里木河流域生态环境恶化的成因进行分析.

关键词: 塔里木河, 河川径流, 入塔里木河水量, 干流耗水, 生态环境

Abstract: The Tarim Basin is in northwestern China,in the southern part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,and the total area is 5.5×105km2.High mountains around the basin prevent ocean air from flowing into the basin.High temperatures,strong winds,and high evaporation rates in the basin result in a very dry climate;annual precipitation averages about 30-60 mm.Surface water and groundwater,recharged mainly by the melting ice and snow from the mountains around the basin,nourish various oases in the basin.Total water resource is 429×108m3 in Tarim River basin,with relatively scarce water and very weak ecological environment.Glaciers cover about 23628.98 km2 of the mountains around the Tarim River Basin,with 2669.435 km3 ice volume;the melt water resources released from the glaciers is about 15×109m3 per year, roughly 40% of wholly surface water in the Tarim Basin.A number of rivers fed by snowmelt and glacier melt begin in the mountains and drain into the basin with average annual virgin flow of about 35 billion m3.Peak flow months in the rivers are July,August and September.Lowest flow occurs in the period from January through April.Around the rivers may be found oases of small villages and agriculture.The Aksu,Hotan,Yarkant and Kaidu-Konque Rivers are four source rivers of Tarim River drainage.The three tributary river systems that contribute flows to the Tarim River(Aksu,Hotan and Yarkand) join just above the Aler gauging station where the Tarim River begins.In addition the Kaidu-Konque River Basin,which is hydrologically separate from the Tarim River,contributes water to the Tarim River by means of a man-made transfer channel.A number of other subbasins exist within the Tarim Basin that do not contribute flows to the Tarim River because all of their flows either naturally evaporate in the desert or are used in irrigated agriculture areas.The two main subbasins in this category are the Kashgar River and the Weigan River.The Tarim River had historically nine river water systems with 144 tributaries combined as a Tarim River System.As climate changing and human activities are increasing to affect on the ecological environment,the Tarim River now become a pattern of four sources river systems and a mainstream system.Based on hydro-meteorological monitoring data including precipitation,evaporation,runoff,floods,bedload,and water quality in Tarim river basin in past 50 years,this paper details with the deterioration of the ecological environment causes and recent changes of the river hydrological characteristics in the Tarim River Basin.

Key words: Tarim River, runoff, inflow to Tarim River, consume water in mainstream,ecological environment

中图分类号: 

  • P339