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冰川冻土 ›› 1983, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (4): 49-56.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.1983.0064

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

我国阿尔泰山的降水及河流径流分析

周伯诚   

  1. 中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所
  • 收稿日期:1982-07-19 出版日期:1984-08-25 发布日期:2012-04-26

An Analysis on the Relationship Between Streamflow and Precipitation in Altay Mountainous Region

Zhou Bocheng   

  1. Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Cryopedology, Academia Sinica
  • Received:1982-07-19 Online:1984-08-25 Published:2012-04-26

摘要: 阿尔泰山横亘于中、苏、蒙边界。在我国境内发源于该山南坡的大河有两条:额尔齐斯河和乌伦古河。这两条河流沿着构造线由东南流向西北。额尔齐斯河是我国唯一流入北冰洋的河流,其支流有哈巴河、布尔津河、克兰河、卡拉额尔齐斯河、卡依尔特斯河等。这些支流大致平行地在额尔齐斯河北侧汇入,成梳状水系,水量沿程增加。乌伦古河支流主要有大青河、小青河及布尔根河,呈辫状水系,在二台以下无支流汇入,水量沿程减少,最后流入乌伦古湖,成为内陆河流。

Abstract: In this paper, by means of an analysis on the relationship between streamflow and precipitation in Altay Mountainous Region, the most important points about them can be summarized as follows: (a) the distribution of precipitation: In pediment, the amount of snowfall is about 30% of total annual precipitation and the snowcover occurs in the middle of October or later. In the middle mountain zone with altitude of 2700m, the snow fall amount rises to 50% of its annual streamflow and its snowcover starts to form in the early October. The maximum thickness of snowcover is more than 2 meters in its western part. Therefore, the snowmelt water is an important replenishment of the stream in the region which has 41% of annual streamflow. (b) the seasonal variation of streamflow: The spring runoff is more than the autumn one. Conversely, the autumn runoff in the northern slope of Tian Shan and Qilian Shan is more than the spring one which causes spring drought in these areas.