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冰川冻土 ›› 2017, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 1172-1179.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2017.0130

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

祁连山区冰川演变特征及对气候变化的响应——以苏干湖流域为例

周祖昊, 韩宁, 蔡静雅, 刘佳嘉   

  1. 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2017-07-12 修回日期:2017-10-26 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2018-04-03
  • 通讯作者: 韩宁,E-mail:m18310541218@163.com. E-mail:m18310541218@163.com
  • 作者简介:周祖昊(1975-),男,湖北武汉人,教授级高工,2002年在武汉大学获博士学位,从事流域水循环模拟与调控研究.E-mail:zhzh@iwhr.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0402405);国家自然科学基金项目(91647109;51679257;51779270)资助

Variation characteristics of glaciers and their response to climate change in the Qilian Mountains: take the Suganhu basin as an example

ZHOU Zuhao, HAN Ning, CAI Jingya, LIU Jiajia   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Institute of Water-Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
  • Received:2017-07-12 Revised:2017-10-26 Online:2017-12-25 Published:2018-04-03

摘要: 冰川是西北干旱地区河流补给的重要来源,近几十年来,受气候变化影响,西北内陆河冰川面积退缩强烈,对流域水资源产生重大影响。利用1989-2013年的TM/ETM+遥感影像资料,通过波段比值阈值法结合GIS技术,提取了祁连山区苏干湖流域共计17期冰川边界数据,分析了冰川规模的变化规律,并结合气象资料研究了冰川区夏季气温和前期降水与冰川面积变化的响应关系,同时进行了相关性分析。结果表明:1989-2013年冰川面积呈持续退缩趋势,缩减速率为-3.01 km2·a-1,年平均面积退缩率为-0.87%,冰川面积由快速缩减变为略微消融。其中,1989-2000年冰川面积急剧退缩,缩减速率达到-4.49 km2·a-1,2000年后冰川面积有较小的减少趋势,缩减速率为-0.09 km2·a-1。分析认为,升温幅度的增大是导致20世纪90年代以来苏干湖流域冰川退缩加剧的根本原因,而冰川面积对于降水量的变化并不敏感,建立了冰川区7-8月平均气温与冰川面积的回归关系式。

关键词: 苏干湖流域, 遥感, 冰川面积, 变化

Abstract: Glaciers are important water sources of rivers in the arid regions of Northwest China. In recent decades, the glacierized area in the inland river basins in Northwest China has shrunk evidently owing to climate change, significantly impacting the water resources in these basins. In this paper, the TM/ETM+ (Level 1T) images from 1989 to 2013 were used as the data sources in the Suganhu basin in the Qilian Mountains, and the watershed ratio threshold method combined with GIS technology was taken to extract the glacier boundary data. The change trends of glacierized area and number were analyzed. Furthermore, the response relationships among summer temperature, precipitation in earlier stage (from last September to August) and glacierized area changes in glacier coverage regions, together with meteorological data, were analyzed. The results show that glaciers have retreated continuously since 1989, with a shrinking rate of about -3.01 km2·a-1 and an annual average rate of -0.87%. However, the glacierized area has changed from rapid shrinking to slight shrinking. For example, the glacierized area had retreated sharply before 2000 with a rate of -4.49 km2·a-1, while has gently retreated after 2000 with a rate of -0.09 km2·a-1. Based on the analysis of meteorological data, it is found that the rising of air temperature had been the major controlling factor of the glacier shrinkage in the basin since the 1990s, while the change in glacierized area is not sensitive to the change in precipitation in a short-term. Thus a regression equation may be established between the air temperature averaged over July and August and the glacierized area in the glacier coverage regions.

Key words: Suganhu basin, remote sensing, glacierized area, change

中图分类号: 

  • P343.6