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冰川冻土 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (5): 1372-1380.doi: 10.7522/j.isnn.1000-0240.2015.0151

• 寒旱区生物学 • 上一篇    下一篇

放牧强度对高寒杂草类草甸群落结构及生物量的影响

毛绍娟1 3, 吴启华1 3, 李红琴1 2, 张法伟1 2, 李英年1 2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 西北高原生物研究所, 青海 西宁 810001;
    2. 中国科学院 高原生物适应与进化重点实验室, 西宁 810001;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-08 修回日期:2015-07-10 出版日期:2015-10-25 发布日期:2016-03-28
  • 通讯作者: 李英年,E-mail:ynli@nwipb.cas.cn. E-mail:ynli@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 作者简介:毛绍娟(1989-),女,青海西宁人,2012年毕业于内蒙古师范大学,现为中国科学院西北高原生物研究所在读硕士研究生,主要从事植被生态学研究.E-mail:sailshell@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)项目(XDB03030502);国家自然科学基金项目(31270523;31070437)资助

Effects of grazing intensity on species diversity and biomass in alpine-cold forb meadow on the Tibetan Plateau

MAO Shaojuan1 3, WU Qihua1 3, LI Hongqin1 2, ZHANG Fawei1 2, LI Yingnian1 2   

  1. 1. Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810001, China;
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2015-05-08 Revised:2015-07-10 Online:2015-10-25 Published:2016-03-28

摘要: 分析了不同放牧强度下青藏高原高寒杂草类草甸植物群落种类组成与结构、物种多样性、生物量的变化状况.结果表明:重牧(HG)条件下草层垂直分化不明显,仅1层结构,而轻牧(LG)和中牧(MG)与对照(CK)条件下禾草和矮嵩草能得到较好的生长,草场垂直结构分异为2层;不同放牧强度下莎草科、禾本科和杂类草的重要值变化趋势不尽相同,HG会导致种类组成的下降,CK和适度放牧下种类组成仍保持较高的水平;尽管短期过度放牧抑制了优良牧草的生长和发育,种类组成降低,但因放牧时间短,组成群落的主要优势种具有较强的耐牧性以及植物生态-生物学特性和遗传性,其群落结构是稳定的;植物地上生物量表现出MG >LG >CK >HG,即适度放牧可提高地上生物量;地下生物量在CK条件下最高,其次为MG、HG和LG,CK、MG与LG、HG有显著性差异.植物根冠比从大到小依次为HG、CK、MG、LG,HG的根冠比显著大于LG.

关键词: 高寒杂草类草甸, 牧压强度, 物种丰富度, 地上/地下生物量

Abstract: Changes of community structure, aboveground biomass, species diversity and the relationship between biomass and species diversity in an alpine-cold forb meadow under different grazing intensities in the northeast Tibetan Plateau, China, were studied. Results show that:1) The vertical structure differentiation was not obvious in heavy grazing(HG) with only 1 layer structure, while, in light grazing(LG), moderate grazing(MG) and non-grazing(CK), the vertical structure changed to two layers because of the better growth of grasses and Kobresia humilis; 2) the important value(IV) of Sedge, Gramineae and Forbs varied differently under different grazing intensities; The community compositions maintained at a high level in CK and MG, while it decreased in HG; 3) despite that short-term overgrazing might inhibit the growth of desirable forage and decrease the communities composition, the communities composition remained stable, because the constructive and dominant species had strong adaptability owing to their grazing resistance, eco-biological and hereditary characteristics; 4) the order of aboveground biomass was Sedge >Gramineae >Forbs in CK, LG and HG, while the order was Gramineae >Sedge >Forbs in MG, and the order of total biomass was MG >LG >CK >HG; the order of root-shoot ratio was HG >CK >MG >LG and the difference between HG and LG was significant.

Key words: alpine-cold forb meadow, grazing intensity, species richness, aboveground and belowground biomass

中图分类号: 

  • S812.8