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冰川冻土 ›› 2016, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (1): 248-258.doi: 10.7522/j.isnn.1000-0240.2016.0028

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

水文模型在估算冰川径流研究中的应用现状

尹振良1,2, 冯起1,2, 刘时银3, 邹松兵1   

  1. 1.中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2.中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 阿拉善荒漠生态-水文试验研究站, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    3.中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2015-10-19 修回日期:2015-12-18 出版日期:2016-02-25 发布日期:2016-05-30
  • 作者简介:尹振良(1985-),山东安丘人,助理研究员,2013年在中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所获博士学位,从事分布式水文模型研究.E-mail:yinzhenliang@lzb.ac.cn.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41190084;30970492;41571031);中国科学院科技创新交叉与合作团队项目;中国博士后科学基金项目(2015M572620);中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所青年基金项目资助

The application progress of hydrological model in quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to total watershed runoff

YIN Zhenliang1,2, FENG Qi1,2, LIU Shiyin3, ZOU Songbing1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Eco-hydrology of Inland River Basin, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (CAREERI), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS), Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Alashan Desert Eco-hydrology Experimental Research Station, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, CAREERI, CAS, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2015-10-19 Revised:2015-12-18 Online:2016-02-25 Published:2016-05-30

摘要: 冰川径流估算是气候变化风险评估和水资源可持续管理的重要内容.冰川径流估算方法主要包括:直接观测法、冰川物质平衡法、水量平衡方程法、水化学示踪法和水文模型法.本文首先对五种方法的应用情况进行简要总结,进而重点阐述水文模型法在估算冰川径流研究中的应用现状.水文模型法是冰川径流估算研究中使用最频繁的方法,使用方式主要包括耦合冰川模块和开发新的冰川水文模型.冰川水文模型中的消融算法主要包括温度指数模型(度日因子法)、修正的温度指数模型、能量平衡模型.受当前观测条件限制,修正的温度指数模型兼顾能量平衡模型和温度指数模型的优势而成为冰川水文模型中最流行的方法.随着学科的发展进步,能量平衡模型与水文模型的耦合将会成为未来的研究重点,发展大尺度分布式冰川水文模型是冰川水文学的未来发展方向之一.

关键词: 冰川径流, 水文模型, 径流贡献, 应用进展

Abstract: Glaciers are the most visible indicators of global climate change. The climate change resulted in glacier retreat in most of the world's mountainous area. Glacier variation will have an extensive and profound influence on ecological and environmental security and the social economy in the future. Because of glacier retreat, hydrological processes have changed observably in lots of watersheds, especially for snow and glacier watershed in high mountainous area. However, the spatial and temporal variations of snow and glacier melt water as well as the contribution of glacier runoff to total runoff are uncertain. Accurate calculation of glacier melt water's contribution to total runoff is part and parcel of risk assessment of climate change and sustainable management of water resources in glacierized basin. Calculating the contribution of glacier runoff to total runoff is a challenging work for the reason that the glacial ablation process and hydrological process are complicated and the terrain as well as the elevation and the gradient of glacierized basin are complex. Detailed meteorological, hydrological, glacial observation data are usually limited to a few accessible and well-studied basins. There are various approaches for quantifying the contribution of glacier runoff to total runoff. Here we examine five different methodological approaches: direct discharge measurement, glaciological approaches, hydrological balance equations, hydrochemical tracers, and hydrological modeling. Hydrological modeling represents the most frequently applied approaches to quantifying the proportional contribution of glacial melt water. Because the temperature is usually easiest to acquire and more suitable for interpolate, the glacier melt module in hydrological model is mainly based on the temperature-index approach and the enhanced temperature-index approach. The energy balance model based on the physical mechanism, which needs more input parameters and has more complex structure, is difficult to couple with hydrological model so far, however energy balance model coupled with distributed hydrological model will be research emphasis in the future. Expanding the regional scale research achievement to remote areas and establishing the physical distributed large scale hydrological model coupled with glacier melt module could be a research prospect.

Key words: glacier runoff, hydrological model, runoff contribution, application progress

中图分类号: 

  • P333