img

官方微信

img

群号:冰川冻土交流群

QQ群:218834310

高级检索

冰川冻土 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (2): 378-387.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2018.0043

• 寒旱区水文水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠穆朗玛峰自然保护区湖泊动态及对区域气候变化的响应

王毅1, 李景吉1,2,3,4, 韩子钧5, 彭培好1,2   

  1. 1. 成都理工大学 生态资源与景观研究所, 四川 成都 610059;
    2. 地质灾害防治与地质环境保护国家重点实验室(成都理工大学), 四川 成都 610059;
    3. 国家环境保护水土污染协同控制与联合修复重点实验室(成都理工大学), 四川 成都 610059;
    4. 成都理工大学 环境学院, 四川 成都 610059;
    5. 成都理工大学 地球科学学院, 四川 成都 610059
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-11 修回日期:2018-01-15 出版日期:2018-04-25 发布日期:2018-07-02
  • 通讯作者: 韩子钧,E-mail:891704530@qq.com;李景吉,E-mail:lijingji2014@cdut.edu.cn E-mail:891704530@qq.com;lijingji2014@cdut.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王毅(1989-),男,四川达州人,2017年在成都理工大学获硕士学位,现为中国科学院成都生物研究所项目聘用人员,从事生态资源与环境遥感研究.E-mail:qsx312@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41501060)资助

The dynamics of lakes in Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve and their responses to regional climate change

WANG Yi1, LI Jingji1,2,3,4, HAN Zijun5, PENG Peihao1,2   

  1. 1. Ecological Resources and Landscape Research Institute, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China;
    2. State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection(Chengdu University of Technology), Chengdu 610059, China;
    3. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Synergetic Control and Joint Remediation for Soil & Water Pollution, (Chengdu University of Technology), Chengdu 610059, China;
    4. College of Environment and Ecology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China;
    5. College of Earth Sciences, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
  • Received:2017-09-11 Revised:2018-01-15 Online:2018-04-25 Published:2018-07-02

摘要: 利用Landsat卫星影像,采用面向对象分类方法提取珠穆朗玛峰自然保护区湖泊信息,分析了湖泊动态及对区域气候变化的响应关系。结果表明:(1)2015年保护区湖泊总面积为489.07 km2,构造湖、河成湖、冰川湖分别占总面积的77.3%、2.6%、20.1%。(2)1975-2015年,保护区内各类湖泊面积变化速率不同,冰川湖最大(1.05 km2·a-1),构造湖次之(-0.85 km2·a-1),河成湖最稳定(0.013 km2·a-1);保护区南坡冰川湖面积变化速率(0.53 km2·a-1)略大于北坡(0.52 km2·a-1)。(3)北坡构造湖、河成湖对区域气候的响应呈阶段性变化规律,1975-2000年珠峰地区气候呈暖湿化趋势,2000年构造湖、河成湖面积达到峰值,两类总计增加22.8 km2;2000-2015年转变为显著的暖干气候,构造湖、河成湖面积均呈减少趋势,总共减少57.16 km2。随着区域气候的变暖,冰川湖总面积不断扩大,近40年间冰川湖面积累计增加43.06 km2。(4)灰色关联度分析显示,年极端低温对构造湖面积变化影响最显著,年均气温对冰川湖起主导作用,年均相对湿度对河成湖影响最大。较其他气候因子而言,降水量对各类湖泊面积变化的影响均最小。

关键词: 湖泊类型, 动态, 气候变化, 珠峰自然保护区

Abstract: In this paper, object-oriented classification method was adopted to extract the lake information of Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve by Landsat satellite images, and to analyze lake dynamics and the responses to regional climate change. The results showed:(1) Total lake area was 489.07 km2 in the Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve in 2015, and tectonic lake, fluvial lake and glacial lake accounted for 77.3%, 2.6% and 20.1% of the total area, respectively. (2) During 1975-2015, the change rates of area were different for various kinds of lake in the reserve:glacier lake (1.05 km2·a-1) > tectonic lake (-0.85 km2·a-1) > fluvial lake (0.013 km2·a-1), with the change rates of glacier lake on south slopes (0.53 km2·a-1) > that on north slopes (0.52 km2·a-1). (3) There were periodic changes for the response of tectonic lake and fluvial lake in the north slopes with regional climate. During 1975-2000, the climate in Mount Qomolangma region was in warm and wet. In 2000, the lake areas of tectonic lake and fluvial lake reached to peak values. The two kinds of lakes had increased 22.8 km2 totally. During 2000-2015, the regional climate had changed to warm and dry, and the lake areas of tectonic lake and fluvial lake had decreased. An area of 57.16 km2 had decreased totally. However, as the warming of regional climate, the total area of glacial lake had enlarged constantly. The glacial lake had increased 43.06 km2 in the reserve in the near 40 years. (4) The grey relational analysis (GRA) results indicated that annual extreme low temperature had the most significant influence on the tectonic lake area. Annual mean air temperature had dominant effects to glacial lake and annual mean humidity had the largest impact on fluvial lake. Compared with other climatic factors, precipitation has the smallest impact on the area of various kinds of lakes.

Key words: lake type, dynamics, climate change, Mount Qomolangma Nature Reserve

中图分类号: 

  • P343.3