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冰川冻土 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (3): 501-510.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2018.0055

• 冰冻圈与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

呼伦贝尔市2016年3月31日-4月2日暴雪过程天气学特征研究

王洪丽1, 付亚男1, 孟雪峰2, 隋沆锐1, 王颖1   

  1. 1. 内蒙古呼伦贝尔市气象局, 内蒙古 海拉尔 021008;
    2. 内蒙古气象局, 内蒙古 呼和浩特 015000
  • 收稿日期:2017-08-15 修回日期:2017-12-11 出版日期:2018-06-25 发布日期:2018-07-16
  • 作者简介:王洪丽(1972-),女,内蒙古呼伦贝尔人,高级工程师,2005年7月在南京信息工程大学获学士学位,从事天气预报相关研究.E-mail:316454501@qq.com.
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41265004);内蒙古暴雪创新专家团队项目;内蒙古自治区气象局业务项目“呼伦贝尔市气候监测服务系统”(nmqxkjcx201827)资助

Study on the synoptic characteristics of snowstorm in Hulunbuir from March 31 to April 2nd, 2016

WANG Hongli1, FU Yanan1, MENG Xuefeng2, SUI Hangrui1, WANG Ying1   

  1. 1. Hulunbuir Municipal Meteorological Bureau, Hailar 021008, Inner Mongolia, China;
    2. Inner Mongolia Meteorological Bureau, Hohhot 015000, China
  • Received:2017-08-15 Revised:2017-12-11 Online:2018-06-25 Published:2018-07-16

摘要: 利用常规观测资料及NCEP 1.0°×1.0°再分析资料,对2016年3月31日至4月2日发生于呼伦贝尔市的一次暴雪天气过程的环流形势、成因机制进行分析,以期总结出此次暴雪的特殊之处,为今后的暴雪天气预报提供可参考的经验。从天气学角度详细地分析此次暴雪过程的高低空影响系统的生消演变,特别对产生极端降水的水汽输送条件、水汽辐合情况、局地水汽聚集以及垂直运动情况进行详尽的分析。研究结果表明:此次暴雪天气过程是由短波扰动叠加低空锋区,导致斜压有效位能释放转变为扰动动能,并促使扰动发展加深为大型涡动而产生;水汽通量分布形态在一定程度上决定了水汽输送效果,“均匀狭长”的分布形态具有更高的水汽输送效率;涡度差动平流与温度平流表明动力因子与热力因子在本次过程中对垂直运动均有显著贡献,而水平散度作为直接反映质量汇集、流失的参量可以更为直观地反映垂直运动的强弱与分布;整层水汽通量散度积分作为与降水强度直接相关的物理量,对于降水量级的反映异常精准,配合中低空气流强度与方向,可对降水落区与时段进行精确判断。

关键词: 暴雪, 诊断分析, 水汽通量, 垂直速度, 水汽通量散度

Abstract: In order to summarize the special characteristics of snowstorm and to make snowstorm forecast, the circulation situation and genetic mechanisms of a snowstorm weather process from March 31 to April 2nd, 2016, in Hulunbuir were analyzed using conventional observation data and NCEP 1.0°×1.0°reanalysis data. A detail analysis was done of the development of the impact systems in high and low altitude, especially, the water vapor transport conditions, water vapor convergence, local water vapor accumulation and vertical motion in the case of extreme precipitation from the perspective of synoptic meteorology. It was found that the snowstorm was confined by short wave perturbation superposed low altitude frontal zone, resulting in the release of baroclinic effective potential energy into perturbation kinetic energy and causing the disturbance to develop into large eddy. Water vapor transport effect was determined by the distribution pattern of specific humidity flux to some extent. The distribution of uniform strip had higher efficiency of transporting water vapor. Eddy differential advection and temperature advection indicated that dynamic factor and thermodynamic factor had significant contribution to vertical motion. While horizontal divergence reflected the intensity and distribution of vertical motion, as a direct parameter of quality accumulation and loss. As a physical quantity directly related to precipitation intensity, the whole layer of specific humidity flux divergence integral accurately reflected precipitation magnitude, and accurately judged the precipitation area and period with low air flow intensity and direction.

Key words: snowstorm, diagnostic analysis, specific humidity flux, vertical velocity, specific humidity flux divergence

中图分类号: 

  • P426.63+4