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冰川冻土 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (3): 762-770.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2022.0075

• 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

雪崩灾害防治研究进展及展望

郝建盛1(), 李兰海2,3,4,5()   

  1. 1.中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所 陆地表层格局与模拟院重点实验室,北京 100101
    2.中国科学院 新疆生态与地理研究所 荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室,新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
    3.中国科学院 伊犁河流域生态系统研究站,新疆 新源 835800
    4.新疆 干旱区水循环与水利用重点实验室,新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
    5.中国科学院 中亚生态与环境研究中心,新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-03 修回日期:2021-11-22 出版日期:2022-06-25 发布日期:2022-08-27
  • 通讯作者: 李兰海 E-mail:haojs@igsnrr.ac.cn;lilh@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:郝建盛,助理研究员,主要从事积雪物理和雪崩灾害防治研究. E-mail: haojs@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(42101080);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0906);四川省科技计划项目(2021YFH0009)

Research progress and prospect of snow avalanche disaster prevention and control

Jiansheng HAO1(), Lanhai LI2,3,4,5()   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation,Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China
    2.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Urumqi 830011,China
    3.Ili Station for Watershed Ecosystem Research,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Xinyuan 835800,Xinjiang,China
    4.Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Utilization in Arid Zone,Urumqi 830011,China
    5.Research Center for Ecology and Environment in Central Asia,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Urumqi 830011,China
  • Received:2021-09-03 Revised:2021-11-22 Online:2022-06-25 Published:2022-08-27
  • Contact: Lanhai LI E-mail:haojs@igsnrr.ac.cn;lilh@ms.xjb.ac.cn

摘要:

雪崩是冰冻圈内主要的自然灾害之一,严重威胁高寒山区内的交通廊道、能源输送和通信干线、矿区、牧区、旅游区等安全并造成基础设施毁坏和人畜死伤,阻碍山区社会经济的可持续发展。随着气候变化和人类活动不断向高寒山区扩展,暴露在雪崩危险之下的人口及基础设施日趋增多,雪崩的风险显著增强。为保障山区的社会经济可持续发展,对雪崩灾害防治管理需求不断增加。在梳理我国1960年以来主要雪崩研究进展基础上,结合世界各地雪崩研究成果,总结了雪崩的影响因素和区域规律、雪崩的形成与运动机理、雪崩监测预警、雪崩风险评估和雪崩工程防治等方面的进展和亟须研究的前沿问题以及科学难点。同时本文论述了气候变化对雪崩活动的影响,以及人类活动与雪崩活动之间的相互影响,展望了未来雪崩防灾减灾的需求并提出对策,推动雪崩防灾减灾研究。

关键词: 雪崩研究, 气候变化, 雪崩灾害, 雪崩防治和管理

Abstract:

Snow avalanches are a major natural hazard in the cryosphere. It seriously threatens transportation corridors, energy transmission and communication lines, mining and touristic areas in the cold mountainous regions and often causes the destruction of infrastructure and human casualties, hindering the sustainable development of society and economy in mountainous areas. Under climate change and the expansion of human activities to alpine mountains, more population and infrastructure will expose to the risk of avalanches. In order to ensure the sustainable development in mountainous areas, the demand for the prevention and management of avalanche disasters is increasing. Based on the review of the main avalanche research progress in China since 1960 and the avalanche research results all over the world, this paper summarized the progress on the influencing factors and regional distribution of avalanche activities, avalanche formation and movement mechanism, avalanche monitoring and early warning, avalanche risk assessment and engineering prevention, as well as the frontier problems and scientific difficulties that need to be studied. In addition, the impact of climate change on avalanche activities and the interaction between human activities and avalanche activities are discussed. By looking forward to the future needs of avalanche disaster prevention and reduction, including the countermeasures, the research on avalanche in China is promoted.

Key words: avalanche research, climate change, avalanche disasters, avalanche prevention and management

中图分类号: 

  • P426.63+6