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冰川冻土 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (2): 461-469.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2015.0053

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

1985-2013年黑河中游流域地下水位动态变化特征

米丽娜1,2, 肖洪浪1, 朱文婧3, 李计生3, 肖生春1, 李丽莉1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院 寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 内陆河流域生态水文重点实验室/甘肃省黑河流域生态水文与流域科学重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
    3. 甘肃省水文水资源勘测局, 甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2014-09-25 修回日期:2014-12-06 出版日期:2015-04-25 发布日期:2015-06-06
  • 通讯作者: 肖洪浪, E-mail: xhl@lzb.ac.cn. E-mail:xhl@lzb.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:米丽娜(1981-), 女, 宁夏固原人, 2008年在兰州大学获硕士学位, 现为中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所在读博士研究生, 主要从事干旱区水土资源、地下水模拟研究. E-mail: xiaomizi-123@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家国际科技合作专项项目(2013DFG70990); 黑河流域生态综合治理工程项目(KFJ-EW-STS-005-02)资助

Dynamic variation of the groundwater level in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during 1985-2013

MI Lina1,2, XIAO Honglang1, ZHU Wenjing3, LI Jisheng3, XIAO Shengchun1, LI Lili1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology of Inland River Basin, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Heihe Key Laboratory of Ecohydrology and Integrated River Basin Science, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
    3. Gansu Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2014-09-25 Revised:2014-12-06 Online:2015-04-25 Published:2015-06-06

摘要:

在气候变化和人类活动的影响下, 黑河流域地表水和地下水的时空分布特征发生了很大变化. 研究水系统演化及其驱动机制对流域水资源可持续管理非常关键. 基于甘肃河西黑河中游流域地下水位动态、水文气象、土地利用和灌溉统计数据, 研究了1985-2013年黑河中游流域地下水位时空变化. 结果表明: 地表水的不合理分配和耕地的扩展导致了地下水的过量开采和地下水位的剧烈变化. 1985-2004年区域地下水位以下降为主; 2005-2013年呈现下降和回升两极发展趋势, 冲洪积扇群带地下水最大下降达17.41 m, 而黑河干流沿岸地下水位最大回升了3.3 m, 地下水埋深普遍增加了1.0~3.0 m. 尽管地下水位在2005-2013年表现出回升趋势, 但干流中游盆地地下水系统处于严重负均衡状态, 制定合理的“生态分水”方案和水资源综合管理规划非常紧迫.

关键词: 黑河中游, 地下水位, 分水, 地下水系统

Abstract:

Temporal and spatial distribution and characteristics of surface water and groundwater have greatly changed under the impacts of climate change and human activities in the middle reaches of the Heihe River. Study the evolution of water system and the mechanisms driving the change are critical for sustainable water management of the river basins. Based on groundwater levels of the monitoring wells and hydrogeological data, meteorological data, remote-sensing data and statistical irrigation data, variation of groundwater level caused by surface water allocation was studied in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in the past 30 years. Results show that the unbalanced allocation of surface water and cropland expansion have resulted in the over-abstraction of groundwater and then lowered the groundwater table and renewable quantity. Groundwater level had declined in 1985-2004, and had declined and risen again during 2005-2013. The lowering groundwater level had reached a maximum of 17.41 m in the upper and middle alluvial-diluvial fans, with a maximum rising (3.3 m) along the main Heihe River, during 1985-2013. Generally, groundwater table had risen 1.0-3.0 m. Groundwater system had fallen in severe negative balance, although the groundwater level had presented a rising tendency during 2005-2013 in Zhangye basin. It is urgent to make a rational policy of “eco-water diversion” and integration planning and management of surface water and groundwater resources in the river basin.

Key words: middle reaches of the Heihe River, groundwater level, water diversion, groundwater system

中图分类号: 

  • P641