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冰川冻土 ›› 2015, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (2): 480-492.doi: 10.7522/j.issn.1000-0240.2015.0055

• 寒旱区水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

新疆车尔臣河流域水域的宏观变化及其影响和驱动因素

阿布都米吉提·阿布力克木1,2, 阿里木江·卡斯木1,3, 艾里西尔·库尔班2, 曼孜然·吐尔逊1   

  1. 1. 新疆师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830054;
    2. 中国科学院 新疆生态与地理研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011;
    3. 新疆师范大学 新疆干旱区湖泊环境与资源实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830054
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-21 修回日期:2015-01-03 出版日期:2015-04-25 发布日期:2015-06-06
  • 通讯作者: 阿里木江·卡斯木, E-mail: alimkasim@gmail.com. E-mail:alimkasim@gmail.com
  • 作者简介:阿布都米吉提·阿布力克木(1979-), 男, 维吾尔族, 新疆库车人, 2003年毕业于新疆大学, 现为新疆师范大学在读硕士研究生, 主要从事环境遥感研究. E-mail: Abdimijit@ms.xjb.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41361043); NSFC-新疆联合基金项目(U1138302; U1303285); 新疆研究生科研创新项目(XJGRI2013129); 新疆干旱区湖泊环境与资源实验室开放基金项目(XJDX0909-2010-01); 教育部留学回国人员项目; 新疆师范大学地理学博士点支撑学科开放基金项目(XJNU-DL-201302; XJNU-DL-201319)资助

The Cherchen River watershed in Xinjiang: macroscopic spatiotemporal variation, controlling and driving effects

Abdimijit Ablekim1,2, Alimujiang Kasimu1,3, Alishir Kurban2, Manzira Tursun1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Ürümqi 830054, China;
    2. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ürümqi 830011, China;
    3. Xinjiang Laboratory of Lake Environment and Resources in Arid Zone, Xinjiang Normal University, Ürümqi 830054, China
  • Received:2014-10-21 Revised:2015-01-03 Online:2015-04-25 Published:2015-06-06

摘要:

利用植被指数和水体指数作为判断参数决策树, 在FAO/UNEP土地覆被分类系统(LCCS)的三级分类基础上建立了以固态/液态水域为主的土地分类系统, 从1990年、2000年和2010年的 Landsat 影像中提取整个车尔臣河流域土地覆被信息并分析了土地覆被变化. 结果表明: 车尔臣河流域水域在2000-2010年变化速度高于1990-2000年, 其中, 湖泊面积及数量增加较为突出. 各种水域中, 冰川及多年积雪面积迅速减少, 2010年海拔5 000 m以下冰川积雪在流域内所有冰川积雪中所占比例由1990年的38.8%减少到5.4%; 有水河道面积及数量在缓慢减少; 湖泊面积和数量大幅增加, 2010年湖泊面积比1990年多5倍, 而且新增的湖泊均在平原区. 在气候以及水域变化的影响下, 流域内自然植被覆盖地在山区和平原区都在持续增加, 而荒漠在减少, 山地自然植被覆盖地增加速度高于平原区. 在流域尺度上, 人文因素对土地覆被变化的影响低于自然因素.

关键词: 车尔臣河流域, 土地覆被, 变化检测, 水域变化, 新疆

Abstract:

The Cherchen River is a unique tributary of the Tarim River. The river directly supplies to the common terminal lake, an endorheic lake, not to the main stream of the Tarim River. The Tetima Endorheic Lake is the most important lake in southeastern Tarim Basin, but it had dried up from 1972 to 2002. Fortunately, in 2000, an Emergency Ecological Water Transfusion (EEWT) project initiated in the lower reaches of the Tarim River by Xinjiang Tarim River Basin Management Bureau. As one of many good results, Tetima Lake has refilled since 2002. In recent years, there is several research projects carried out in the lower reaches of the Tarim River to assess the effect of EEWT in different fields, such as lake area, water quality, ground water table, vegetation vitality, seed bank, biodiversity, micro climate, etc. Some research showed that water area in Tetima-Kanglayka lake region is increasing, and the main driving force of this change (EEWT project) is summarized. In this research using vegetation index and water index as determining parameters of decision tree, the land cover information, include various forms of water areas in the entire watershed of the Cherchen River sub-basin, was extracted by using Landsat Images in 1990, 2000 and 2010. Land cover changes were analyzed based on the classification system established based on 3rd level of FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System. It is revealed that water area changing speed in the period of 2000-2010 was faster than that in the period of 1990-2000, especially in lakes, of which area and number were increasing comparatively. Among various water bodies, glaciers and snow covers shrunk significantly. The area of glaciers and snow covers, distributed in the areas lower than 5 000 m, were account for 38.8% of all glaciers and snow covers in the entire watershed in 1990, but in 2010, it reduced to 5.4%. The area and number of rivers had changed not so much, but the area and number of lakes had increased greatly. The lakes area in 2010 was 5 times more than that in 1990, and most of new-formed lakes were distributed in the plain areas in the lower reaches. As a result of climate change and water body change, natural vegetated lands are expanding continuously both in the mountain areas and plain lands, especially those at high altitude, except for deserts (including all kinds of non-vegetated, non-water covered lands and also non-artificial lands), which are decreasing. The vegetated lands in the mountain areas are expanding faster than those in plain; accordingly, the shrinking speed of deserts in the mountains faster than that in the plain areas. Through correlation analysis, it is found that the influence of natural factors is greater than that of human factors in the whole Cherchen River watershed in the period from 1990 to 2010.

Key words: Cherchen River watershed, land cover, change detection, water body change, Xinjiang

中图分类号: 

  • P343